Thursday, January 19, 2023

Governance in India

28 States and 8 Union Territories divided into 543 MP Constituencies (areas)

Indian Government

Central Government    State Government                Local Self-government

Central Government

President

          Legislature                    Executive                       Judiciary

          Members of Parliament (MPs)  Secretariat              Supreme Court

Lok Sabha (Lower House) (543)                

Rajya Sabha (Upper House) (238)

Prime Minister             Chief Secretary              Chief Justice of SC

(Deputy PM)

Cabinet Minister                    Secretary of Dept.                  Justice

Deputy Minister

Ministers of State                           

Head of Dept / Director       

                                        Joint Director

                                        Deputy Director

                                        Section Officer

                                        Senior Clerk

                                        Junior Clerk

Indian Constitution is supreme. President is the Head of the country. He/She is the Supreme Commander of all armed forces. He/She acts on the advice of the Prime Minister. Legislature passes resolutions and sends them to the President for his approval. With his/her acceptance they become laws. Executive wing implements those laws in the country. Judiciary decides whether the laws are in accordance with the constitution or not.

Also read: Ancient Indian Glory – Fact or Fiction?

State Government

Governor

Legislature                    Executive                       Judiciary

Members of Legislative                  Secretariat                     High Court Assembly (MLA) (AP 175)

Members of Legislative                                                                                        Council (MLC) (AP 58)

          Chief Minister               Chief Secretary            Chief Justice of HC

(Deputy CM)

Cabinet Ministers                  Secretary of a dept.              Justice

Head of Dept / Director       

                                        Joint Director

                                        Deputy Director

                                        Section Officer

                                        Senior Clerk

                                        Junior Clerk

Governor is the Head of a state. (For Union Territory the Head is Lieutenant Governor). He acts on the advice of the Chief Minister. Legislature passes resolutions and sends them to the Governor for his approval. With his acceptance they become laws. Executive implements those laws in the state. Judiciary decides whether the laws are in accordance with the constitution.

Also read: Law and Justice

Local Self-government

Zilla Parishad (Chairman and Councilors) for a District

Municipal Corporation (Chairman and Councilors) for a Town

Panchayat Samiti (President and Ward Members) for a group of villages

Panchayat (President and Ward Members) for a village and its hamlets if any.

District Administration

Collector                                                                                    District Judge

District Officer of each Department Ex: SP of Police                                       Magistrate Class I

Divisional Officer Ex: Deputy SP of Police                                     Magistrate of Class II

Mandal Officer Ex: Circle Inspector of Police

Village Officer Ex: Sub-Inspector of Police

Constitutional Bodies

Election Commission

Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)

Enforcement Directorate (for Financial crimes)

Comptroller and Auditor General of India

Etc.

Functioning : Central, State and Local governments collect various taxes. They share the money between them. Different government offices draw money by presenting bills to Treasury Department which passes them if they are in accordance with the rules and then the money is collected from State Bank of India which operates govt. funds.

Also read: Lawyers in Courts

Duties of MLAs and MPs: These representatives of people are expected to participate in all the discussions in the respective Sabha / Assembly / Council and see that they support the good and oppose the bad issues irrespective of their party affiliation. Getting transfer of an official, getting a tap connection for a person, recommending a contract for near and dear etc., are not the things expected of them. But unfortunately that is what the public is expecting from them and they are earning a lot of money appearing to do what the public wants. Moreover the legislators of ruling party support everything govt. does and those in opposition oppose whatever the govt. does without applying their mind. Further many times a discussion does not take place on issues because of shouting, dharnas and walk outs. This is truly undemocratic factionalism of a different kind. An MLA / MP belongs to the state / country and not to his constituency alone. He should not interfere in the duties of the executive officers. A Minister should get things done by interacting with the Head of Executive Department.

Also read: An Inspiring Teacher

Rajendra Singh Baisthakur
Rajendra Singh Baisthakur
Rajendra Singh Baisthakur had been a Lecturer in English. He is a poet, critic and translator. His interests are Literature, Philosophy and social media.

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