U.S and Iran Historic Agreement
- Iran and U.S nuclear understanding
- Despite years of distrust
- Final treaty in June
What happened Thursday at Lausanne, Switzerland was historic in terms of negotiations that led to an understanding of an agreement among the countries that have more than two decades of distrust. The understanding is seen as an important step to accomplish a treaty among the countries.
Iran and the top nations, the U.S and its allies, have come to an understanding after eight-day deliberations between the two groups. John Kerry, U.S. secretary of state and the Iran Foreign Minister Mohammed Javad Zarif have addressed the press later that day to the effect that both the countries have reached an understanding, but the final details and signing the treaty was postponed to end of June.
Both sides had to make a lot of compromises to reach to an understanding. Iran agreed to rollback its nuclear program sufficiently – approximately 10,000 of the 19,000 centrifuge in the country and also reduce the uranium enrichment to a considerable extent for at least next 15 years. It has also been agreed to convert the heavy-water reactor plant in Arak into a research facility. Meanwhile, the U.S had to be content with shutting down only some of the centrifuges and also has agreed to lift all the sanctions imposed on Iran. But there is no agreement yet on when the sanctions would be lifted and whether the sanctions are lifted all at once or as a piecemeal.
However, the U.S is confident that Iran would not be able to make a bomb in the near future if the country has signed the treaty, which is going to be in June. The confidence is not just based on belief in Iran government, but because of the transparency and the regulation rules Iran agreed to, Obama said talking from White House after the successful negotiations.
Nevertheless, for these successful negotiations to become a treaty there has to be a lot of work to be done by both the countries’ leaders. In the U.S, Obama administration has to convince the Congress, which has been criticizing the negotiations and flaying the White House and the president for compromising too much, to make all the compromises and promises made in the negotiations possible. Congress only can remove all the sanctions on Iran on permanent basis.
The recent win by Netanyahu, who opposed the deal vehemently, has strengthened many anti-deal members in the Congress. Netanyahu also recently addressed the U.S Congress and criticized the deal as a bad deal. To that effect, a group of republicans led by Tim Cotton, senator from Arkansas, wrote a letter to the Iran Government stating that they refuse the deal and would act against when their time comes. Obama administration has to deal with all this opposition at home and also from Israel and from Saudi Arabia, which is a Sunni state and does not want a Shiite state such as Iran to dominate the Middle East.
At the same time, Iran has to deal with its military and the Ali Khomeini, supreme leader of the Islamic revolution and who opposed any deal with the western world. Hassan Rouhani and his group has to basically sell the deal to the people – to that effect, the leader has chosen his rhetoric by saying that the deal would still allow the centrifuges and heavy-water reactor in Arak. But the part that the leader hardly spoke in the press meet was that those facilities would either reduce the uranium enrichment or used for research purposes in the next 15 years and would not be utilized for making an atom bomb.
However, if both the leaders became successful in convincing their people, a treaty would finally signed in June between the two countries that would be historic.